Monographs and Information Papers

MAS Information Papers highlight key trends, developments or practices in the financial sector.  The papers are not prescriptive in nature; the objective is to help disseminate information and enhance understanding of current issues. 

MAS' Monographs are detailed discussions of specialised subjects such as financial sector regulation and monetary policy operations in Singapore's context. 



  • 05 April 2019

    A Guide to Digital Token Offerings

    This paper provides general guidance on the application of the securities laws administered by MAS in relation to offers or issues of digital tokens in Singapore.

  • 28 March 2019

    Incentive Structures in the Banking Industry – Fostering Sound Behaviour and Conduct

    MAS conducted a series of thematic inspections on incentive structures of selected banks in 2018 to assess how banks’ incentive structures were aligned with prudent risk-taking and ethical behaviour. This information paper highlights good practices and illustrative examples observed from the inspections. It also sets out the desired outcomes relating to incentive structures that MAS expects to see in banks.

  • 20 March 2019

    MAS Enforcement Report 2017/2018

    The inaugural MAS Enforcement Report sets out the enforcement actions taken by MAS for the reporting period of July 2017 to December 2018. The report also outlines MAS’ enforcement priorities, the types of misconduct MAS is currently investigating and the key initiatives MAS has undertaken to uphold Singapore’s reputation as a clean and trusted financial centre.

  • 18 January 2019

    MAS' Approach to Macroprudential Policy

    This monograph sets out the objectives, framework and principles that guide MAS’ approach to macroprudential policy, including its interaction with microprudential supervision and monetary policy.

  • 12 November 2018

    Principles to Promote Fairness, Ethics, Accountability and Transparency (FEAT) in the Use of Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics in Singapore’s Financial Sector

    This document provides firms offering financial products and services with a set of foundational principles on the responsible use of artificial intelligence and data analytics (AIDA). The Principles also help firms to strengthen internal governance around data management and use, fostering greater public confidence and trust in the use of AIDA.

  • 25 October 2018

    Thematic Review of Credit Review Standards and Practices of Corporate Lending Business

    MAS conducted a thematic inspection to assess the credit review standards and practices for the corporate lending business of several banks in Singapore. This information paper describes the key findings and areas where financial institutions should pay additional attention to. It also highlights good practices that were observed.

  • 24 September 2018


    This Monograph outlines the approach that the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”) takes towards enforcement, the role that enforcement plays in the wider objective of financial industry oversight and the key areas of MAS’ enforcement practice and powers across the financial industry.

  • 15 November 2017

    A Guide to Digital Token Offerings

    On 1 August 2017, the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) clarified that if a digital token constitutes a product regulated under the securities laws administered by MAS, the offer or issue of digital tokens must comply with the applicable securities laws. This paper provides general guidance on the application of the securities laws administered by MAS in relation to offers or issues of digital tokens in Singapore.

  • 23 August 2017

    MAS' Approach to Resolution of Financial Institutions in Singapore

    This Monograph explains MAS’ role as resolution authority and approach towards resolving financial institutions under MAS’ purview.

  • 20 July 2017

    Guidance on Insurers' Own Risk and Solvency Assessments (ORSA)

    This paper summarises MAS’ key observations from a focused review of ORSA reports submitted by direct life, general and composite insurers as well as reinsurers, and seeks to provide guidance on how insurers can better implement and benefit from their ORSAs.

Last Modified on 09/11/2018